Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) beamforming array gain can make multi-antenna transmitters (TXs) more power efficient. However, these MIMO TXs require more complex digital predistortion (DPD). In this brief, analytical expressions are derived for the power consumption of both MIMO power amplifier (PA) arrays and their respective DPD, taking into account the effects of precoding on PA output power and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). It is shown that for complex DPD algorithms such as cross-over DPD (CO-DPD) in combination with wide bandwidths, the overall DPD power consumption can exceed the overall PA power consumption already for scenarios with more than two antennas.
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Power Efficiency Model for MIMO Transmitters Including Memory Polynomial Digital Predistortion