Multiple Constant Multiplication (MCM) over integers is a frequent operation arising in embedded systems that require highly optimized hardware. An efficient way is to replace costly generic multiplication by bit-shifts and additions, i.e. a multiplierless circuit. In this work, we improve the state-of-the-art optimal approach for MCM, based on Integer Linear Programming (ILP). We introduce a new low-level hardware cost metric, which counts the number of one-bit adders and demonstrate that it is strongly correlated with the LUT count. This new model permitted us to consider intermediate truncations that permit to significantly save resources when a full output precision is not required. We incorporate the error propagation rules into our ILP model to guarantee a user-given error bound on the MCM results. The proposed ILP models for multiple flavors of MCM are implemented as an open-source tool and, combined with an automatic code generator, provide a complete coefficient-to-VHDL flow. We evaluate our models in extensive experiments, and propose an in- depth analysis of the impact that design metrics have on synthesized hardware.
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Toward the Multiple Constant Multiplication at Minimal Hardware Cost