ADDERS are a key building block in arithmetic and logic units (ALUs) and hence increasing their speed and reducing their power/energy consumption strongly affect the speed and power consumption of processors. There are many works on the subject of optimizing the speed and power of these units, which have been reported. Obviously, it is highly desirable to achieve higher speeds at low-power/energy consumptions, which is a challenge for the designers of general purpose processors. One of the effective techniques to lower the power consumption of digital circuits is to reduce the supply voltage due to quadratic dependence of the switching energy on the voltage.
Moreover, the subthreshold current, which is the main leakage component in OFF devices, has an exponential dependence on the supply voltage level through the drain-induced barrier lowering effect. Depending on the amount of the supply voltage reduction, the operation of ON devices may reside in the super threshold, near-threshold, or subthreshold regions. Working in the super threshold region provides us with lower delay and higher switching and leakage powers compared with the near/subthreshold regions. In the subthreshold region, the logic gate delay and leakage power exhibit exponential dependences on the supply and threshold voltages. Moreover, these voltages are (potentially) subject to process and environmental variations in the nano-scale technologies. The variations increase uncertainties in the aforesaid performance parameters. In addition, the small subthreshold current causes a large delay for the circuits operating in the subthreshold region.
- High Power Consumption
- High area coverage
Proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA :
The basic idea behind using VSS CSKA structures was based on almost balancing the delays of paths such that the delay of the critical path is minimized compared with that of the FSS structure. This deprives us from having the opportunity of using the slack time for the supply voltage scaling. To provide the variable latency feature for the VSS CSKA structure, we replace some of the middle stages in our proposed structure with a PPA modified in this paper. It should be noted that since the Conv-CSKA structure has a lower speed than that of the proposed one, in this section, we do not consider the conventional structure. The proposed hybrid variable latency CSKA structure, where an Mp-bit modified PPA is used for the pth stage (nucleus stage). Since the nucleus stage, which has the largest size (and delay) among the stages, is present in both SLP1 and SLP2, replacing it by the PPA reduces the delay of the longest off-critical paths. Thus, the use of the fast PPA helps increasing the available slack time in the variable latency structure. It should be mentioned that since the input bits of the PPA block are used in the predictor block, this block becomes parts of both SLP1 and SLP2.
- Reduced Power Consumption
- Reduced Area coverage