## Description

**Proposed Title :**

# FPGA Implementation Adiabatic Quantum Flux Parametron technique based 16-Bit BCD adder using Majority Gate

**Improvement of this Project:**

##### To implement RCA based BCD adder and CLA based BCD adder using AQFP (Adiabatic Quantum Plux Parametron) majority gate.

##### • To implement this in 16-bit size of RCA_BCD adder and CFA_BCD adder and shown the parameter value of area, delay and power.

**Software implementation:**

- Modelsim
- Xilinx 14.2

**Existing System:**

The decimal arithmetic has received wide attention in response to the increasing demand for precision in financial and commercial based applications. Several digital processors and computers were designed including decimal arithmetic hardware units. The current CMOS technology is approaching its scaling limitation. New nanotechnologies including quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) , nano magnetic Logic (NML), and spin-wave devices (SWD) are studied due to their advantages in terms of low power and high density. These emerging nanotechnologies are based on majority logic, which is different from conventional Boolean logic in CMOS.

As the core of decimal arithmetic, previous works have been conducted into majority-based parallel decimal adder. The existing majority logic based parallel decimal adders mostly share the same structure, but differ from each other in the usage of binary adders. The 1-digit ripple carry adder (RCA) based BCD adders are proposed in. However, these designs can be further optimized to reduce hardware complexity. Carry flow adder (CFA) based and carry look ahead adder (CLA) based BCD adders are presented in, which show good performance. Moreover, exploits novel binary adder to propose the efficient 1-digit BCD adder, reducing comprehensive consumption. In order to fully utilize the majority gates, and rewrite the correction function for less majority gates. Different from the existing designs, we use a new approach to compute carry logic in the multi-digit BCD adder.

In this paper, we propose a new definition for BCD adder output carry computation in terms of majority gates and use it for computing all the carries of the multi-digit BCD adder in parallel. We have introduced decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals to calculate carries in the BCD adder. As a result, we have reduced delay in the multi digit BCD adder. We have used different types of binary adders, such as RCA, CFA and parallel binary adder (PBA) for realizing the proposed multi-digit BCD adder. Theoretically, our PBA based n-digit BCD adder reduces the delay and area-delay product (ADP) by 50% compared with the existing designs. We have implemented our designs using QCA technology and designed using QCA Designer. The proposed QCA Designer based 8-digit PBA-BCD adder achieves at least 38% less delay compared with the best existing designs.

Fig.1 shows the block diagram of conventional 1-digit BCD adder. The 1-digit BCD adder consists of 4-bit binary adder (ADD1), correction logic (CL) and 4-bit binary adder (ADD2). The binary adder (ADD1) adds the decimal number dA3:0, dB3:0 and dCin to produce the binary sum bS3:0 and output carry bCout. The CL circuit produces the cL3:0 and decimal output carry signals dCout for converting binary sum bS3:0 to decimal sum dS3:0. The cL3:0 = (0110)2, if dCout = 1 otherwise cL3:0 = (0000)2. The binary adder (ADD2) produces decimal digit dS3:0 by adding bS3:0 and cL3:0. The theoretical delay required for generating 1-digit BCD adder dCout signal (dc(1)) and dS3:0 signal (d(1)) are given in (1) and (2).

dc(1) = da1 + dcl (1)

d(1) = da1 + dcl + da2 (2)

where da1, dcl and da2 represent the delays required for single ADD1, CL and ADD2 blocks, respectively. Similarly, the theoretical delay required for generating ndigit BCD adder output carry and decimal sum signals are given in (3) and (4). we can observe that the delay required for the calculation of output carry signal (dc(n)) and decimal sum signal (d(n)). The delay path in Fig. 2 is marked using the dotted line.

dc(n) = n(da1 + dcl) (3)

d(n) = n(da1 + dcl) + da2 (4)

The delay dc(n) and d(n) are in multiples of n. This is due to the computation of output carry in the form of ripple carry style. The theoretical definition for calculating the ripple carry style output carry of the single digit output carry is given as

dCout = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) (5)

The recent proposed BCD design in uses the output carry shown in (5). The multi-digit BCD adder design in achieved low delay due to the parallel nature of 4-bit binary adder (ADD1). In this paper, we propose a new definition for the output carry in (5), which is employed into parallel implementation of the multi-digit BCD adders.

**Disadvantages:**

- High power and low density.
- High area, power and delay.
- Hardware complicity is more.
- Utilization of majority gate is less

**Proposed System:**

In this recent digital design of BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) adders, which have lot of functionality in digital arithmetic applications, in such as this BCD adder will have lot of complexity in variable bit size and also intermediate carry operations. In existing method of BCD adder will added a Correction logic in between two 4-bit Binary adder, to correct a intermediate Carry operation, with using Majority gate functionality. In this paper we present to reduced the complexity of this BCD adder design which using Adiabatic Qunatum Flux Parametron technique in Majority gate, thus the correction logic operation will improve the performance of area, delay and power, and also reduced the complexity in BCD adders. Here, we are present this BCD adder using RCA (Ripple Carry Adder) and CFA (Carry Flow Adder) methods, in this CFA 1-bit adder will also have Majority gates, thus it will give more performance compared to RCA. Finally this paper presents in VHDL language and Synthesized in Xilinx FPGA S6LX9-2TQ144, and also compared in the terms of area, delay and power.

**PROPOSED BCD ADDER DESIGNS:**

The recent proposed BCD design in uses the output carry shown in (5). The multi-digit BCD adder design in achieved low delay due to the parallel nature of 4-bit binary adder (ADD1). In this paper, we propose a new definition for the output carry in (5), which is employed into parallel implementation of the multi-digit BCD adders.

The block diagram of parallel 1-digit BCD circuit is shown in Fig. 3. The design in [12] used the same block diagram for the implementation of BCD adder but they have used ANDOR gate based output carry as shown in (6)

dCout = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) + (bS3:0 == 9)dCin (6)

To define the dCout in terms of majority gates. For this, we rewrite (6) as follows:

dCout = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) + (bS3:0 >= 9)dCin

= bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10)+ [bCout + (bS3:0 9)]dCin (7)

The logic signals bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) and bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9) can be rewritten as [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10)] · [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9)] and [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10)] + [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9)], respectively. By substituting these values in dCout, we can rewrite the equation of dCout as follows:

dCout= [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10)] · [bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9)]

+[bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) + bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9)]dCin (8)

The dCout in (8) is clearly in 3-input majority gate form with inputs bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10), bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9) and dCin. We can write the dCout using the majority gate as shown in (9).

dCout = M (bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10),

bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9), dCin ) (9)

The terms (bS3:0 >= 10) and (bS3:0 >= 9) are binary signals and we are calling these signals as decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals. These two signals are represented as dG3:0 and dP3:0, as shown in (10) and (11), respectively.

dG3:0 = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) (10)

dP3:0 = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9) (11)

The proposed majority gate form of dCout using dG3:0 and dP3:0 signals is given as follows:.

dCout = M (dG3:0, dP3:0, dCin ) (12)

is similar to CLA method for the calculation of carry. Because of this, we are calling CL stage as CL-CLA. The cL3:0 signal is calculated The dCout in (12) uses decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals for calculation. This using the dCout as shown in (13).

cL3:0 = {0, dCout, dCout, 0} (13)

The proposed dCout in (12) requires only 1 majority gate after calculating the dG3:0 and dP3:0 signals. Fig. 4 shows the majority gate diagram of proposed dCout in (12). We have used the majority gate results presented in [10] for calculation of dG3:0, as shown in (14).

dG3:0 = bCout + bS3 · bS2 + bS3 · bS1

= M (bCout, M (bCout, bS3, 1), M (bS3, bS2, bS1)) (14)

To save the area, we have calculated dP3:0 as follows:

dP3:0 = bCout + (bS3:0 >= 9)

= bCout + (bS3:0 >= 10) + (bS3:0 == 9)

= dG3:0 + bS3 · bS0 (15)

We can observe that the decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals are independent of decimal input carry, which are produced parallelly in the multi-digit BCD adder. Consequently, all decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals of the multi-digit BCD adder share the same delay. Fig. 5 shows the majority gate circuit for calculating the carries dC1, dC2, dC3 and dC4 using decimal group generate and decimal group propagate signals. The delay required for calculating the dC4 in Fig. 5 is only the delay of four majority gates, which can be achieved from the proposed definition of dCout in (12). The Fig. 6 shows the proposed block diagram of parallel 4-digit BCD adder.

** Advantages:**

- Low power and high density.
- Low area, power and delay.
- Less hardware complicity.
- Utilization of majority gate is more

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# New Majority Gate Based Parallel BCD Adder Designs for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata

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